Nuclear medicine is a branch of science dealing with the diagnostic application of radioactive preparations and it is based on the radioactive tracing technique elaborated by Hevesy György.
The investigation techniques using radioisotopes can be basically divided into in vitro (in test tube) and in vivo (in the living organism) procedures on the basis of the way of the application. Out of the isotope diagnostic methods of the urogenital system, the investigation methods of the kidneys (the static, the perfusion and the dynamic renography and the clearance determination) offer the most information about the judgement of the joint and the separated kidney operation.
The quantitative determination of the glomerular and the tubular functions can be achieved by the kidney clearance determination investigations which can be isotopic or non-isotopic procedures and can be based on blood samples (in vitro) and gamma camera (in vivo).
The materials getting filtered mostly via the glomeruli (e.g. the DTPA, diethylene-tetra-amine-pentaacetic-acid applied in certain isotope diagnostic investigations of the kidney) can be applied for the measurement of the GFR (glomerular filtration rate). The detemination of the GFR value has a differential diagnostic and prognostic role in case of the patients with diabetes, renal insufficiency and hypertonia and it is an extremely important parameter regarding the start of the dialysis and the start and the monitoring of the kidney transplantation.
In my thesis, I performed the retrospective comparison of the blood sample based and image based GFR determination methods by the elaboration of the renographic investigation of 90 patients from the point of view of the glomerular function.
Besides the comparison of the GFR determination methods, the aim of my study was to get to know and to acquire the different processing programs and diagnostic systems (Interview Xp, OSTNUCLINE 3.0 and MicroSEGAMS) and to compare these methods.