In the transportation sector, electrical solutions are gaining ground, both in the case of railway hauling and unbound traffic. The use of electricity always results in the generation of an electric or magnetic field. Above a given value these fields may cause serious biological effects on the human, which makes it necessary to examine these effects. There are two trends which result in an increasement magnetic field of the passengers: with the appearance of compact vehicles, the distance between the electrical equipment and passengers is decreasing and the power requirements of electric vehicles are increasing, due to the special features of the drive systems, it results in a high current at low voltage.
This paper presents what areas of the everyday life we encounter with large electrical, magnetic fields and non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation. It also reviews general human fears about electromagnetic fields and compares them with the guidelines of the specialized organizations (e.g. WHO, ICNIRP) and the results of the latest research on the topic. The magnitude of magnetic fields appearing in the passenger compartment of different types of vehicles (e.g. railway, metro, tramway, magnetic rail, trolleybus, hybrid and electric cars) will be presented as well as trends in transport today. In the field of electric cars, trams and railways, I examine the magnitude and distribution of the magnetic field based on the literature and finite element method simulation and outline the possibilities available for reducing them.