Nowadays cranes are widely used to move loads mostly in ports and building operations. They are still controlled by operators, but there are more and more systems that are for help their work. On the one hand they help to speed up the work and on the other hand, they guarantee bigger safety. One of the problems to be solved, in which this kind of system could help the operator comes from the swing of the rope. If the swing angle is too large, it can be dangerous and may block the exact emplacement of a load.
In my thesis I deal with control of cranes that involve making a sensor that can be used to measure the angle of the rope. It is also involve the construction of controllers that can attenuate the swinging angle of the rope. I introduce three possible methods of making the sensor: optical measuring, camera with image processing algorithm, and last but not least using of encoder. After that, I demonstrate the steps of construction of the fittings for encoder method, the electrical wiring to dSpace Autobox , and I also present the complete tool. Then I present the correctional table which describes the relation between the measured and the real swing angle .
For the attenuation of the swing angle I planned three controllers. These are the following: serial compensation realized with PD controller, state feedback controller with actual observer, finally a controller based on the statement of the zero value of the angle velocity. Furthermore I present the Lagrange-equation which is used to make the dynamic model of the system, then the received movement equations and I also give the modell of the system using transfer function and state-space description. The survey of the controllers with simulation and on the crane model are also the part of my thesis. I also study the robustness of the controller in front of the change of the crane’s rope. For construction and implementation I used the Matlab-Simulink-dSPACE fast prototype planner framework.