Fossil fuels are the most important primary energy source in most countries of the world. The transportation sector and especially the individual transport are highly dependent on them. Increased CO2 emission, the proceeding scarcity of crude oil leading to rising prices and political discussions about future energy security initiated a demand for an alternative to fossil fuel powered transportation. The electrification of vehicle fleet can be an innovative solution to this problem.
In the last few decades, as a result of economic and environmental protection reasons, significant development in the area of electric vehicles (EV) has restarted. The electrification of the mobility has many benefits and opportunities; however it will cause significant effects and problems, which have to be solved. In the first part of this study the state of art overview of current EV technology, limits and opportunities of its technical implementation, are described.
Today’s EVs have limited range, which is a large barrier to their roll-out. The main focus of this thesis is investigating the possible grid impacts and opportunities of supplying EVs with public charging stations (with DC fast charging and battery switching technologies) in order to extend the range of EVs. Based on Dutch travel pattern (number of visits to these facilities and the time of service), queuing theory is used to estimate the required number of charging points/ switching lanes per public charging station. Based on this, the potential peak power requirements are calculated and possible grid integration conditions of the public charging stations are obtained. For battery switching stations, the maximum available capacity has also been estimated, which could be used for grid regulation.
At the end of this study, possible economic incentives and market models of E-mobility are investigated from the interested market players' point of view.