The energy demands of our rapidly improving society have been being growing for decades. These energy demands are fulfilled mainly by burning of fossil energy sources. However the effects of global warming, climate changing and energy crisis urge the expansion of new and alternative methods of energy generation without any delays. One of them is the solar radiation which is uniquely important and inexhaustible source of energy that we are able to convert into heat with solar collector and into electronic energy with PV-panels. The low efficiency and high costs of PV-panels do not allow of falling into the background of the fossil fuels. We constantly measure the parameters and characteristics of PV-panels in order to the effective improvement and increasing efficiency of them.
The realization of a future lab-practice was the motivator of the task. The aim is that the students would be able to get to know the most important parameters of PV-panels and compare the different types of them.
The most important task is that the measuring of current-voltage (I-V) characteristic in the function of angle of incidence. The power given by the PV-panel depends on the angle of incidence besides the intensity of light and temperature of the panel. Therefore we have to adapt standardized measuring conditions in order to the accuracy of conclusions drawn from measurements and comparability of data. Realizing of it we need to measure the light intensity and temperature. The measuring of light was done by using photodiode and I measured the temperature with infra-red thermometer. During the lightening, the sun was substituted by xenon incandescent that owns almost the same spectrum. For the realization of different angle of incidences I have used stepper motors. One of the motors moved the incandescent around the x-axis and the other was turning the PV-panel around the y-axis. The essay also involves a measuring guide. It was an important aspect in the collocation that the students would be able to deepen their knowledge doing the measurements.