Nowadays the energy demand of the world is increasing continuously, the new requirements hard to be accomplished. To meet this need, it is important to know each element of the network and calculate the maximum ampacity of these devices.
Transmission lines are essential components of the power grid. Like any device, they also have certain load limits. One of the most important tests is the inspection of the ampacity of the conductors – as part of dynamic line rating, and icing models.
Another important parameter of the conductor is the time constant, which determines the heating time. This is very important because in the winter months strong ice formation may occur on the transmission line, which can cause extremely serious problems. Removing the ice from the conductor is a challenging task, and there are several ways to achieve this: mechanical devices can be used to carry out the operation, as well as defrosting the ice layer. In this case, the temperature of the conductor increases with the current flowing through the line, thereby melting the ice layer. It must be ensured that the transmission line conductor temperature does not exceed the critical value while irreversible changes occur in its material.
An additional important result of the calculation is that it is possible to validate the accuracy of the sensors for the transmission lines.
In the light of the foregoing, the examination and determination of these parameters is a key issue in ensuring sustainable energy supply, because overheating and icing of the transmission line may lead to serious problems – or even to system breakdown.