Effect of solar photovoltaic production on the operation of low-voltage transformer areas

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Supervisor:
Dr. Hartmann Bálint
Department of Electric Power Engineering

Recently the application and penetration of the photovoltaic (PV) systems have increased rapidly. This tendency will definitely continue in the future because of various reasons. Partly on account of the regulations like Europe 2020 strategy, and the significant support provided to their accomplishment. These regulations try to mitigate the effects of the climate change, in accordance to the sustainable development. On the other hand the manufacturing cost of PVs decreases, hence their acquisition will be cheaper in the future.

With the increase in the number of the PV systems, their impacts on the electrical networks becomes more powerful as well. One of the most important impacts is voltage rise which is caused by the reverse power flow. The PV systems are mainly connected to the distribution networks, thus their impacts are more significant there. On high penetration levels the solar generation has serious effects on the operation of low-voltage transformer areas.

Firstly, in my thesis, I have investigated the impacts of PV systems on the low-voltage distribution networks. After a comprehensive review, I have continued my research with computer simulation, for which I had to create a distribution system model. On the completed model I have performed the simulations on different penetration levels (0%, 30%, 60%, 90%), observing the change of the impacts.

Voltage rise and other negative impacts on the grid caused by solar generation could be mitigated by applying numerous methods. In this thesis, I have examined the application of the energy storage systems (ESS), their capability to ease the voltage rise and other problems. Further simulations resulted in calculation of the power and the capacity of the storage system required to achieve the necessary effects. Meanwhile I studied, how the location of the system influences the previous properties.

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