Most of the public electricity customers are equipped with a device, using which it is possible to remotely switch on and off certain household appliances. The remote control of load groups is a job of electricity suppliers. They arrange it with Ripple and Radio Ripple Control Systems (RCS). In order to avoid the re-regulation of the base load power plants the structure of these switching schedules currently aims at maximizing the minimum of the daily system load. This is a very important goal with significant practical benefits, but the RCS system can also be used for other purposes without the violation of the present aims.
The first part of the thesis is about the modelling of the direct controlled load groups. I will present a procedure, which performs parameter identification by using the load time function (as an objective function) generated by a known switching schedule of a load group. Knowing the parameter set could help in estimating the effect of optional switching schedules. By separating the daily load curve into controlled and non-controlled parts a proper objective function for the identification procedure can be gained. This separation can be performed with sufficient accuracy using an interpolation procedure and additional temporary “on” and “off” commands added to the switching schedule.
The effects of various switching schedules on the total daily load curve can be analyzed if the daily load curve excluding the direct controlled loads, and the models of the controlled loads are known. With this information, and based on an optimization procedure a switching schedule can be created, which maximizes the daily load minimum. (This schedule will be called “base schedule” hereafter.)
The third part of the thesis is about reducing balancing energy with the help of direct controlled loads. The procedure follows the supplier’s objective functions with only minor changes of the above mentioned base schedule. With the help of this procedure the supplier’s penalty for balancing energy can be reduced with only a marginal impact on the previous objective.
The last part of the thesis deals with the possibilities that smart meters could offer in solving the mentioned problems. I will use a model to estimate the effect of a switching schedule on load of the direct controlled group, when the members of the group have smart meters, which are able to transfer data on the actual condition of their water heaters.