Impact assessment of electric car charging on LV grids

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Supervisor:
Dr. Farkas Csaba
Department of Electric Power Engineering

The market for electric cars is presently limited but it is expected to increase rapidly due to the increased environmental concern and technological advancements. Currently, car companies are designing electric cars for daily urban use, therefore in the near future, urban areas might have a large number of electric cars running on their streets during the day. It is obvious that these electric cars need to be recharged for further use which will be done in the evening or during the night. Due to their high-energy capacity, mass deployment of electric cars will have a significant impact on the distribution system, mostly on the LV grid by affecting the network voltage profiles and the loading of the grid elements such as transformer, etc. This impact will call the design of electric cars interface devices and the way future distribution system will be designed and controlled.

In this thesis, we discussed brief the technology behind the electric vehicles, different components and working operation of EVs, most commonly used batteries and time to charge these batteries. We also discussed the different levels of charging and the required charging infrastructure to charge the EVs.

In the next part, we have focused on the global market of EVs, especially in the European Union and Hungary, and the electric grid in Hungary, the present status of current load and future load in Budapest and in the country. Then we discussed the impacts caused by EVs on the grid and mitigation of these impacts by using different methods.

Finally, we model the LV grid in the DigSilent Powerfactory software with parameters such as power factor and base active power of household loads and electric cars. Then, we run the load flow analysis to know how the power flows across each load varies and time sweep analysis to know the loading on the transformer, voltages and currents at different bus-bars and terminals. Then, we analysed the obtained results to acquire the possible issues that electric car charging might have on the LV grid.

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