By embedding IoT-enabled devices in medical equipment, healthcare professionals would be able to monitor and analyze patients more effectively and thus would be able to use the data gathered from the devices to provide and deliver better connected and coordinated healthcare. The concept of IoT encloses a wide range of networks, embedded and cloud systems whose value is unlocked by the data acquired from the sensor devices that can be used by gateways, cloud applications, and analytics to drive significant value.
Smart healthcare has been one of the major use cases of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. Moreover, improving the efficiency of the IoT healthcare and biomedical applications has become one of the most challenging goals of today.
WSN as a technique for sensing and acquiring data in IoT applications must work upon providing an efficient routing in order to transfer data promptly and properly. The routing in biomedical WSNs may be affected by various factors, such as: energy, heterogeneity, network topology, latency, scalability, mobility, radio range of sensors, quality of service in sensor nodes, or harsh environmental conditions. One of the most fundamental concerns is the energy consumption and the lifetime of static and mobile sensors, since most of the sensors in the biomedical WSN rely on the battery. Neither cable-powered nor frequent battery replacement or rechargement are appealing options in these applications. The required routing technique must balance the goals: selecting the most reliable minimum energy path when all nodes have high energy and avoiding the low residual energy nodes while supporting mobility. In WSNs the sensor nodes can be static or mobile depending on their application requirements. For IoT healthcare services, the need of mobile sensor nodes is imminent. Thus, the mobility of nodes in WSNs adds a significant challenge for the routing protocols.
This Thesis work is separated in independent technical and non technical overview. In the first part, it provides a comprehensive survey of the IoT technologies used in the healthcare domain and gives classification of the biomedical services and applications. In the second part, it introduces a theoretical framework and routing algorithm whose main aim is to provide increased energy efficiency and network lifetime taking into account the mobility of the sensor nodes in biomedical WSNs consisted of both static and mobile (mixed) nodes, while maintaining acceptable reliability. The simulation results indicate that the proposed routing model's Objective Function (OF) gives similar performance in comparison to the default Minimum Rank with Hysteresis Objective Function (MRHOF) in terms of packet delivery ratio (PDR) and gives better performance in terms of energy consumption, network lifetime and total control traffic overhead while providing mobility support.